Smith and Ragan consider the ways in which “management concerns intersect with instructional design” and examine “two primary aspects of management…1) management of instructional design projects, and 2) management concerns related to the instructional process itself, as an instructional strategy element” (313). At one of these sections there seems to be a certain type of person (or a certain set of characteristics) who (or that) seems valuable in both realms (management and instructional design)—the project manager, who must possess a “synthesis of a diverse set of skills” (313). (This profile also struck me, having spent some time working in television production, as similar to characteristics I’d seen of more successful producers. If often had—and still do have—some difficulty describing exactly what it is a producer does. “They do all sorts of stuff” or “They get stuff done” were/are my most common descriptions.) In action, this project manager, Smith and Ragan note, “is concerned with groups of variables represented by four basic constraints: performance, cost, time, and scope… [and the f]ive essential components of the project manager’s role are managing project: integration, scope, time, cost, and human resources” (313).
The authors also spend some time using their critical eyes on (the great number of) “software packages” designed to “assist…project managers in the field” (324), warning that a “danger for the novice project manager in grabbing software tools too soon is to become dependent on the tool rather than refining skills and capacity for advanced management thinking” (325). I’ve seen this happen in the nonprofit world numerous times. It can lead—or add up to—extraordinary inefficiencies.