In contrast to Clark, Kozma claims that “capabilities of a particular medium, in conjunction with methods that take advantage of these capabilities, interact with and influence the ways learners represent and process information and may result in more or different learning when one medium is compared to another for certain learners and tasks” (p. 179). Kozma notes that the “theoretical framework supported by the [research] review herein presents an image of the learner actively collaborating with the medium to construct knowledge”; which, he notes (pointing or speaking to Clark), “stands in vivid contrast to an image in which learning occurs as the result of instruction being ‘delivered’ by some (or any) medium” (p. 179). Kozma argues that Clark “creates an unnecessary schism between medium and method. Medium and method have a more integral relationship; both are part of the [educational media] design” (p. 205).
I found a great deal of very interesting material (enlightening information and exciting ideas) in Kozma’s piece, even if it was a bit dated, as well. Some of the questions that arose for me were the following:
- How, in particular might or does science fiction (literature) work in relation to the “situational model” Kozma describes (p. 183)?
- Could we argue that today’s audiobooks (e.g. digital audio texts that can easily be rewound, their presentation speed easily adjusted and even bookmarked) are a more stable than the “ever-advancing” audiotape presentations Kozma describes (p. 184)? That is, could we say they’re more like traditional, printed texts than Kozma’s transient audiotapes?
- Thinking of Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics, what influence can be traced (or how much thanks is owed) to the medium of comics in relation to our current understanding and deployment of–visual–symbol systems?